András Liker


– 2017 – present: MTA-PE Evolutionary Ecology Research Group, Principal Investigator
– 2011 – present: Professor, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary
– 2011-2013: Marie Curie Research Fellow, University of Sheffield, UK
– 2003 – 2011: Associate Professor, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary
– 1997 – 2002: Research fellow, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary
– 1992 – 1996: PhD student, University of Debrecen, Hungary
– 1986 – 1991: Graduate student, University of Szeged, Hungary



Behavioural ecology of urban animals:
I have a broad interest in how animals adapt to the challenges of the anthropogenic environment. My current research focuses on behavioural adaptations for tolerating human disturbances, and on the mechanisms that enable animals to develop tolerance (e.g. phenotypic plasticity, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms). In this project, we use great tits breeding along multiple urbanization gradients as a model system, and are conducting large-scale behavioural studies and innovative field experiments.

Comparative studies:
In another line of research, I study the interspecific variation of reproductive behaviour, for example in parental care and social and genetic mating systems. One of the main aims of the project is to understand the evolutionary drivers of the diversity seen in these behavioural traits. In the last few years, we focuses on how the adult sex ratio of the populations is related to breeding systems in birds and other tetrapods. Linked to this research, we initiated a new field study that focuses on similar questions in the pheasant-tailed jacana, a unique bird species exhibiting uniparental male care and sex role reversal (see more on this research by Nolwenn Fresneau).

Recent grants and awards:

– NKFIH research grant (K132490, PI), 2019-2023
– NKFIH research grant (KH130430, PI), 2018-2021
– Hungarian Academy of Sciences, research group grant (No. 1600, PI), 2017-2022
– NKFIH research grant (K112838, PI), 2014-2018
– Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship, 2011-2013
– OTKA research grant (K 84132, PI), 2011-2014


Room N-14, Building N, University of Pannonia,
Pf. 158, H-8201, Veszprém, Hungary
Tel.: +36 88 624249
e-mail: aliker[at], andras.liker[at]


Reprints from here.

Balázs Vági, Daniel Marsh, Gergely Katona, Zsolt Végvári, Robert P. Freckleton, András Liker, Tamás Székely, Scientific Reports 12:16655,

Andrea Romano, András Liker, Gaia Bazzi, Roberto Ambrosini, Anders P. Møller, Diego Rubolini, Evolution,

Xiaoyan Long, Yang Liu, András Liker, Franjo Weissing, Jan Komdeur & Tamás Székely, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 76 (7): 1-12,

Christopher R. Cooney, Yichen He, Zoë K. Varley, Lara O. Nouri, Christopher J. A. Moody, Michael D. Jardine, Andras Liker, Tamas Szekely, Gavin H. Thomas, Nature Ecology and Evolution 6: 622–629,

Zitan Song, András Liker, Yang Liu, Tamás Székely, American Naturalist 200: 250-263,

Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer, Gavin H. Thomas, Andras Liker, Oliver Krügger, Jan Komdeur, Tamas Székely, Ecology Letters 25: 647-660,

Pipoly, I., Preiszner, B., Sándor, K., Sinkovics, Cs., Seress, G., Vincze, E., Bókony, V., Liker A. 2022. Extreme Hot Weather Has Stronger Impacts on Avian Reproduction in Forests Than in Cities. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 10:825410. DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2022.825410

Krisztina Sándor, Gábor Seress, Csenge Sinkovics, Áron Péter, András Liker 2022. Differences in feather structure between urban and forest great tits – constraint or adaptation? Journal of Avian Biology, DOI: 10.1111/jav.02922

Edina Csákvári, Veronika Fabók, Sándor Bartha, Zoltán Barta, Péter Batáry, Gábor Borics , Zoltán Botta-Dukát, Tibor Erős, Judit Gáspár, Éva Hideg, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Gábor Sramkó, Tibor Standovár , Szabolcs Lengyel, András Liker, Tibor Magura, András Márton, Attila Molnár V., Zsolt Molnár, Beáta Oborny, Péter Ódo Béla Tóthmérész, Katalin Török, Péter Török, Orsolya Valkó, Tibor Szép, Judit Vörös, András Báldi 2021. Biological Conservation, 264: 109396,

Csenge Sinkovics, Gábor Seress, Ivett Pipoly, Ernő Vincze, András Liker 2021. Great tits feed their nestlings with more but smaller prey items and fewer caterpillars in cities than in forests. Scientific Reports 11, 24161. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-03504-4

Boglárka Bukor, Gábor Seress, Ivett Pipoly, Krisztina Sándor, Csenge Sinkovics, Ernő Vincze, András Liker 2021. Double-brooding and annual breeding success of great tits in urban and forest habitats. Current Zoology, doi:

Nolwenn Fresneau, Ya-Fu Lee, Wen-Chen Lee, András Kosztolányi, Tamás Székely, András Liker 2021. Sex role reversal and high frequency of social polyandry in the pheasant-tailed jacana (Hydrophasianus chirurgus). Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution,

Judit Mokos, István Scheuring, András Liker, Robert P. Freckleton and Tamás Székely 2021. Anisogamy does not predict the origin of sex roles. Scientific Reports, 11: 19424,

Gábor Seress, Krisztina Sándor, Ernő Vincze, Ivett Pipoly, Boglárka Bukor, Nóra Ágh, András Liker 2021. Contrasting changes in reproductive success of birds in cities with reduced and increased human disturbance during the COVID-19 lockdown. Scientific Reports, 11: 17649,

Ernő Vincze, Gábor Seress, Ivett Pipoly, Csenge Sinkovics, Krisztina Sándor, László Zsolt Garamszegi, Veronika Bókony & András Liker 2021. Consistency and plasticity of risk-taking behaviour during incubation in urban and forest great tits (Parus major). Animal Behaviour, 179: 161-172.

András Liker, Veronika Bókony, Ivett Pipoly, Jean-Francois Lemaitre, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Tamás Székely, Robert P. Freckleton 2021. The evolution of large males is associated with female-skewed adult sex ratios in tetrapods. Evolution, 75: 1636-1649,

Krisztina Sándor, András Liker, Csenge Sinkovics, Áron Péter, Gábor Seress 2021. Urban nestlings have reduced number of feathers in Great Tits (Parus major). Ibis, 163: 1369-1378,

Culina, A. (…) Liker, A. (…) Seress, G. (…) Visser, M.E. 2021. Connecting the data landscape of long‐term ecological studies: the SPI‐Birds data hub. Journal of Animal Ecology, 90: 2147-2160, DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.13388

Karola Szemán, András Liker & Tamás Székely 2021. Social organization in ungulates: revisiting Jarman’s hypotheses. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 34: 604-613,

Gergely Katona, Balázs Vági, Zsolt Végvári, András Liker, Rob Freckleton, Veronika Bókony, Tamás Székely 2021. Are evolutionary transitions in sexual size dimorphism related to sex determination in reptiles? Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 34: 594-603,

Jose O. Valdebenito, Naerhulan Halamibieke, Jordi Figuerola, András Liker, Tamás Székely 2020. Mortality cost of sex-specific parasitism in wild bird populations. Scientific Reports, 10: 20983,

Preiszner, Bálint, Czeglédi, István, Boros, Gergely, Liker, András, Kern, Bernadett, Erős, Tibor 2020. Scavenging behaviour and size-dependent carcass feeding of the black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) Journal of Fish Biology, 97: 1113-1119,

Ágh, N., Pipoly, I., Szabó, K., Vincze, E., Bókony, V., Seress, G., Liker, A. 2020. Does offspring sex ratio differ between urban and forest populations of great tits (Parus major)? Biologia Futura 71: 99–108.

Péter Áron, Sándor Krisztina, Seress Gábor, Vincze Ernő, Klucsik Krisztián Pál, Liker András 2020. The effect of artificial light at night on the biomass of caterpillars feeding in urban tree canopies. Urban Ecosystems 23:1311–1319.

Gábor Seress, Krisztina Sándor, Karl Evans, András Liker 2020. Food availability limits avian reproduction in the city: an experimental study on great tits (Parus major). Journal of Animal Ecology 89: 1570-1580,

Christopher R. Cooney, Catherine Sheard, Andrew D. Clark, Susan D. Healy, Kevin N. Laland, András Liker, Sally E. Street, Camille Troisi, Gavin H. Thomas, Tamás Székely, Nicola Hemmings & Alison E. Wright 2020. Ecology, phylogeny, and the evolution of developmental duration in birds. Nature Communications, 11, 2383,

Balázs Vági, Zsolt Végvári, András Liker, Robert P. Freckleton, Tamás Székely 2020. Parental care forms are predicted by climatic and social environments in Anura. Global Ecology and Biogeography 29: 1373-1386,

Lemaître Jean-François, Ronget Victor, Tidière Morgane, Allainé Dominique, Berger Vérane, Cohas Aurélie, Colchero Fernando, Conde Dalia, Liker András, Marais Gabriel, Scheuerlein Alexander, Székely Tamas, Gaillard Jean-Michel 2020. Sex differences in adult lifespan and aging rates of mortality across wild mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 117: 8546-8553,

Liker A. 2020. Biologia Futura: adaptative changes in urban populatios. Biologia Futura, 71: 1–8,

Sergio Ancona, András Liker, María Cristina Carmona-Isunza & Tamás Székely 2020. Sex differences in age-to-maturation relate to sexual selection and adult sex ratios in birds. Evolution Letters 4: 44-53,

Ernő Vincze, Ivett Pipoly, Gábor Seress, Bálint Preiszner, Sándor Papp, Brigitta Németh, András Liker & Veronika Bókony 2019. Great tits take greater risk toward humans and sparrowhawks in urban habitats than in forests. Ethology, 125: 686–701.

Ivett Pipoly, Krisztián Szabó, Veronika Bókony, Tamás Hammer, Sándor Papp, Bálint Preiszner, Gábor Seress, Ernő Vincze, Julia Schroeder & András Liker 2019. Higher frequency of extra-pair offspring in urban than forest broods of great tits (Parus major). Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 229, doi: 10.3389/fevo.2019.00229

Balázs Vági, Zsolt Végvári, András Liker, Robert P. Freckleton, Tamás Székely 2019. Parental care and the evolution of terrestriality in frogs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 20182737,

Veronika Bókony, Gregory Milne, Ivett Pipoly, Tamás Székely, András Liker 2019. Sex ratios and bimaturism differ between temperature-dependent and genetic sex-determination systems in reptiles. BMC Evolutionary Biology 19: 57,

Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Shinichi Nakagawa, Moisès Sánchez-Fortún, Dominic Martin, Sukanya Ramani, Antje Girndt, Veronika Bókony, András Liker, David F. Westneat, Terry Burke, Julia Schroeder 2018. Meta-analysis challenges a textbook example of status signalling and demonstrates publication bias. eLife 7: e37385, doi: 10.7554/eLife.37385

Csenge Sinkovics, Gábor Seress, Virág Fábián, Krisztina Sándor & András Liker 2018. Obtaining accurate measurements of the size and volume of insects fed to nestlings from video recordings. Journal of Field Ornithology 89: 165-172.

Gábor Seress, Tamás Hammer, Veronika Bókony, Ernő Vincze, Bálint Preiszner, Sándor Papp, Ivett Pipoly, Csenge Sinkovics, Karl L. Evans & András Liker 2018. Impact of urbanization on abundance and phenology of caterpillars and consequences for breeding in an insectivorous bird. Ecological Applications 28: 1143-1156.

Zsolt Végvári, Gergely Katona, Balázs Vági, Rob Freckleton, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Tamás Székely & András Liker 2018. Sex-biased breeding dispersal is predicted by social environment in birds. Ecology and Evolution 13: 6483-6491.

Seress, G., Vincze, E., Pipoly, I., Hammer, T., Papp, S., Preiszner, B., Bókony, V. & Liker, A. 2017. Effects of capture and video‐recording on the behavior and breeding success of Great Tits in urban and forest habitats. Journal of Field Ornithology 88: 299-312.

Bókony, V., Kövér, Sz., Nemesházi, E., Liker, A., Székely, T. 2017. Climate-driven shifts in adult sex ratios via sex reversals: the type of sex determination matters. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 372: 20160325.

Bókony, V., Pipoly, I., Szabó, K., Preiszner, B., Vincze, E., Papp, S., Seress, G., Hammer  H. & Liker, A. 2017. Innovative females are more promiscuous in great tits (Parus major). Behavioral Ecology, DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arx001.

Mónus, F., Liker, A., Pénzes, Z. & Barta, Z. 2017. Status signalling in male but not in female Eurasian Tree Sparrows Passer montanus. Ibis 159: 180-192.

Preiszner, B., Papp, S., Pipoly, I., Seress, G., Vincze, E.,  Liker, A. & Bókony, V. 2017. Problem-solving performance and reproductive success of great tits in urban and forest habitats. Animal Cognition 20: 53-63.

Vincze, E., Papp, S., Preiszner, B., Seress, G., Bókony, V. & Liker, A. 2016. Habituation to human disturbance is faster in urban than rural house sparrows. Behavioral Ecology 27: 1304-1313.

Remeš, V., Freckleton, R. P., Tökölyi, J., Liker, A. & Székely, T. 2015. The evolution of parental cooperation in birds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 112: 13603–13608.

Pipoly, I., Bókony, V., Kirkpatrick, M., Donald, P., Székely, T., Liker, A. 2015. The genetic sex-determination system predicts adult sex ratios in tetrapods, Nature 527: 91–94.

Liker, A., Freckleton, R.P., Remeš, V. & Székely, T. 2015. Sex differences in parental care: Gametic investment, sexual selection, and social environment. Evolution 69: 2862-2875.

Rubolini, D., Liker, A., Garamszegi, L.Z., Møller, A.P. & Saino, N. 2015. Using the website to obtain robust phylogenies for avian comparative studies: A primer. Current Zoology 61: 959-965, 2015.

Preiszner, B., Papp, S., Vincze, E., Bókony, V. & Liker, A. 2015. Does innovation success influence social interactions? An experimental test in house sparrows. Ethology 121: 661-673.

Papp, S., Vincze, E., Preiszner, B., Liker, A. & Bókony, V. 2015. A comparison of problem-solving success between urban and rural house sparrows. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 69: 471-480.

Vincze, E., Papp, S., Preiszner, B., Seress, G., Liker, A. & Bókony, V. 2015.
Does urbanization facilitate individual recognition of humans by house sparrows?
Animal Cognition 18: 291-298.

Seress, G& Liker, A. 2015. Habitat urbanization and its effects on birds. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 61: 373-408.

Barta, Z., Székely, T., Liker, A. & Harrison, F. 2014. Social role specialization promotes cooperation between parents. American Naturalist 6: 747-761.

Székely, T., Liker, A., Freckleton, R., Fichtel, C. & Kappeler, P. 2014. Sex-biased survival predicts adult sex ratio variation in wild birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: 1788

Liker, A., Freckleton, R.P. & Székely T. 2014. Divorce and Infidelity Are Associated with Skewed Adult Sex Ratios in Birds. Current Biology 24: 880–884.

Westneat, D. F., Bókony, V., Burke, T., Chastel, O., Jensen, H., Kvalnes, T., Lendvai, Á.Z., Liker, A., Mock, D., Schroeder, J., Schwagmeyer, P.L., Sorci, G. & Stewart, I.R.K. 2014. Multiple aspects of plasticity in clutch size vary among populations of a globally-distributed songbird. Journal of Animal Ecology 83: 876–887.

Bókony, V., Lendvai, Á.Z., Vágási, I.Cs., Pătraş, L., Pap, P.L., Németh, J., Vincze, E., Papp, S., Preiszner, B., Seress, G. & Liker, A. 2014. Necessity or capacity? Physiological state predicts problem-solving performance in house sparrows. Behavioral Ecology 25: 124-135.

Pipoly, I., Bókony, V., Seress, G., Szabó, K. & Liker, A. 2013 Effects of Extreme Weather on Reproductive Success in a Temperate-Breeding Songbird. PLoS ONE 8(11): e80033. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080033

Pap, K., Nagy, L., Balogh, C., G-Tóth, L. & Liker, A. 2013. Environmental factors shaping the distribution of common wintering waterbirds in a lake ecosystem with developed shoreline. Hydrobiologia 716: 163-176.

J. Schroeder, H. L. Dugdale, R. Radersma, M. Hinsch, D. M. Buehler, J. Saul, L. Porter, A. Liker et al. 2013. Fewer invited talks by women in evolutionary biology symposia. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26: 2063–2069.

Székely, T., Remeš, V., Freckleton, R.P. & Liker, A. 2013. Why care? Inferring the evolution of complex social behaviour. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26: 1381–1391.

Liker A., Freckleton R.P. & Székely T. 2013. The evolution of sex roles in birds is related to adult sex ratio. Nature Communications 4: Article number 1587.

Seress G., Bókony V., Pipoly I., Szép T., Nagy K. & Liker A. 2012. Urbanization, nestling growth and reproductive success in a moderately declining house sparrow population. Journal of Avian Biology 43: 1-12.

Bókony V., Kulcsár A., Tóth Z. & Liker A. 2012. Personality Traits and Behavioral Syndromes in Differently Urbanized Populations of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus). PLoS ONE 7(5): e36639.

Bókony V., Seress G., Nagy S., Lendvai Á.Z. & Liker A. 2012. Multiple indices of body condition reveal no negative effect of urbanization in adult house sparrows. Landscape and Urban Planning 104: 75-84.

Seress, G., Bókony, V., Heszberger, J. & Liker, A. 2011. Response to predation risk in urban and rural house sparrows. Ethology 117: 896-907.

Pipoly I., Bókony V. & Liker A. 2011. Hogyan befolyásolja az időjárás a házi verebek (Passer domesticus) fiókaetetési viselkedését? Állattani Közlemények 96(1-2): 97-111. [in Hungarian]

Bókony, V., Kulcsár, A. & Liker, A. 2010. Does urbanization select for weak competitors in house sparrows? Oikos 119: 437-444.

Liker, A. & Bókony, V. 2009. Larger groups are more successful in innovative problem solving in house sparrows. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106: 7893-7898.

Liker, A., Bókony, V., Kulcsár, A., Tóth, Z., Szabó, K., Kaholek, B. & Pénzes, Z. 2009. Genetic relatedness in wintering groups of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Molecular Ecology 18: 4696–4706.

Tóth, Z., Bókony, V., Lendvai, Á.Z., Szabó, K., Pénzes, Z. & Liker A. 2009. Effects of relatedness on social foraging tactic use in house sparrows. Animal Behaviour 77: 337–342.

Tóth, Z., Bókony, V., Lendvai, Á.Z., Szabó, K., Pénzes, Z. & Liker A. 2009. Kinship and aggression: do house sparrows spare their relatives? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63: 1189-1196.

Tóth, Z., Bókony, V., Lendvai, Á.Z., Szabó, K., Pénzes, Z. & Liker A. 2009. Whom do the sparrows follow? The effect of kinship on social preference in house sparrow flocks. Behavioural Processes 82: 173-177.

Bókony, V., Lendvai, Á.Z., Liker, A., Angelier, F., Wingfield, J.C. & Chastel, O. 2009. Stress response and the value of reproduction: are birds prudent parents? American Naturalist 173: 589-598.

Liker, A. & Nagy, L. 2009. Migration of mallards in Hungary: migration phenology, the origin of migrants, and long-term changes. Ringing & Migration 24: 259-265.

Liker, A., Papp, Z., Bókony, V. & Lendvai, Á.Z. 2008. Lean birds in the city: body size and condition of house sparrows along the urbanization gradient. Journal of Animal Ecology 77: 789–795.

Szabó, K., Szalmás, A., Liker, A. & Barta, Z. 2008. Adaptive host-abandonment of ectoparasites before fledging? Within-brood distribution of nest mites in house sparrow broods. Journal of Parasitology 94: 1038–1043.

Kingma, S.A., Szentirmai, I., Székely ,T., Bókony, V., Bleeker, M., Liker, A. & Komdeur, J. 2008. Sexual selection and the function of a melanin-based plumage ornament in polygamous penduline tits Remiz pendulinus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 62: 1277–1288.

Bókony, V. , Garamszegi, L.Z., Hirschenhauser, K. & Liker, A. 2008. Testosterone and melanin-based black plumage coloration in birds. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 62: 1229–1238.

Bókony, V., Liker, A. Lendvai, Á.Z. & Kulcsár, A. 2008. Risk-taking and survival in the House Sparrow Passer domesticus: are plumage ornaments costly? Ibis 150: 139-151.

Olson, V.A., Liker, A., Freckleton, R.P. & Székely, T. 2008. The strength of parental conflict in birds: testing the roles of offspring development, ecology, and mating opportunities. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B. 275: 301-307.

Sol, D., Székely, T., Liker, A. & Lefebvre, L. 2007. Big-brained birds survive better in nature. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B. 274: 763-769.

Seress, G., Szabó, K., Nagy, D., Liker, A. & Pénzes, Z. 2007. Extra-pair paternity of Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) in a semi-urban population. Tiscia 36: 17-21.

Lendvai, Á.Z., Liker, A. & Barta, Z. 2006. The effects of energy reserves and dominance on the use of social foraging strategies in the house sparrow. Animal Behaviour 72: 747-964.

Bókony, V., Lendvai, Á.Z. & Liker, A. 2006. Multiple cues in status signalling: the role of wingbars in aggressive interactions of male house sparrows. Ethology 112: 947–954.

Bókony, V. & Liker, A. 2005. Melanin-based black plumage coloration is related to reproductive investment in cardueline finches. Condor 107: 775–787.

Liker, A. & Székely, T. 2005. Mortality costs of sexual selection and parental care in natural populations of birds. Evolution 59: 890-­897.

Szentirmai, I., Székely, T. & Liker, A. 2005. The influence of nest quality on heat loss of Penduline Tit eggs. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 51: 59-66.

Lendvai, Á., Barta, Z., Liker, A. & Bókony, V. 2004. The effect of energy reserves on social foraging: hungry sparrows scrounge more. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B. 271: 2467-2472.

Barta, Z., Liker, A. & Mónus, F. 2004. The effects of predation hazard on the use of social foraging tactics. Animal Behaviour 67: 301-308.

Torda, G., Liker, A. & Barta, Z. 2004. Dominance hierarchy and status signalling in captive tree sparrow (Passer montanus) flocks. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 50: 35-44.

Lendvai, Á., Liker, A. & Kis, J. 2004. Male badge size is related to clutch volume in the Kentish Plover. Ornis Hungarica 14: 15-21.

Bókony, V., Liker, A., Székely, T. & Kis, J. 2003. Melanin-based plumage colouration and flight displays in plovers and allies. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, B 270: 2491-2497.

Liker, A. & Barta, Z. 2002. The effects of dominance on social foraging tactic use in house sparrows. Behaviour 139: 1061-1076.

Szabó, K., Szalmás, A., Liker, A. & Barta, Z. 2002. Effects of haematophagous mites on nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Acta Parasitologica 47: 318-322.

Liker, A., Reynolds, J.D. & Székely, T. 2001. The evolution of egg size in socially polyandrous shorebirds. Oikos 95: 3-14.

Liker, A., Márkus, M., Vozár, Á., Zemankovics, E. & Rózsa, L. 2001. Distribution of Carnus hemapterus in a starling colony. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 574-580.

Liker, A. & Barta, Z. 2001. Male badge size predicts dominance against females in house sparrows. Condor 103: 151-157.

Kis, J., Liker, A. & Székely, T. 2000. Nest defense by lapwings: observations on natural behaviour and an experiment. Ardea 88: 155-163.

Liker, A. & Székely, T. 1999. Mating pattern and mate choice in the lapwing Vanellus vanellus. Ornis Hungarica 8-9: 13-25.

Liker, A. & Székely, T. 1999. Parental behaviour in the lapwing Vanellus vanellus. Ibis 141: 608-614.

Liker, A. & Székely, T. 1997. Aggression among female lapwings Vanellus vanellus. Animal Behaviour 54: 797-802.

Liker, A. & Székely, T. 1997. The impact of grazing and road use on hatching success of Lapwing Vanellus vanellus. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 43: 85-92.

Liker, A. 1995. Monogamy in precocial birds: a review. Ornis Hungarica 5: 1-14.